Data Processing and Management Information System | Although large numbers of computers are used for the educational purposes at University’s, College and in home for leisure activities such as games. The majority of computers are used in commerce and industry
such as banks, oil companies manufacturing , firm and government departments. here the assist in keeping accounts being salaries and bills, storing information for rapid access, monitoring and controlling chemical processing and industries activity etc. Data Processing and Management Information System.
All these activities involved data processing also known as electronic data processing (EDP) When computers are involved.
Generally, any manipulation of data by a computer can be referred to as data processing.
In practice, the terms applied to the processing of large amounts of business data, as when, printing monthly money pays slips or electricity bills of customers. By the power Holding Company of Nigeria, (PHCN).
data processing involves a sequence of action, which are carried out regularly. In order to maintain a steady flow of work. These are several safeguards, which are built in to prevent these routine from being disrupted by errors equipment failures, and other unforeseen problems. (Data Processing and Management Information System)
Data is the representation of facts, or the recording of events, in a formalized manner. For the expenses purpose of communication interpretation of processing.
Either by human being or machines. Data is now considered an economic asset to organization. In the same vein as land, labor and capital. Data is useful, the day to day operations in an organization. Examples of data, materials, used on a particular job, number of item delivered name of a person address of the customer. hour spend at work in a week, and so on. When data is being used in its basic or raw form is usually referred to a source data. When it is used in a processed form. That is when has been worked upon somehow. It is referred to as objects, data or information.
Distinctions between data processing information processing
data processing is a method of converting data to produce information( manipulation of data to information.).
Information processing is special case of data processing, is a process of transmitting data into information, which can be used to make a decision a data processing includes all people, procedures, and device used to produce desirable output .
An Information Processing System include all people, procedures, and devices used to produce useful information that can be used in decision making.
Data Processing method.:
There are three methods of data processing. These are:
- Electronic data processing (EDP).
- Manual data processing
- Mechanical data processing.
Electronic Data processing:
data, possessing is the term, used to denote the process of making available item of source data, converting them into information and passing the information on the appropriate. Quarters.
When the procedures used to process the data involve the use of a computer.
Then the method is referred to as electronic data processing. (EDP)
- Manual data processing.
When the procedure is used to process the data is done by human. Being without the use of computer. Then they method is referred to as Manuel data processing. It is usually extraction of facts from source documents and generate output. This method often slows
It is Common, observation. That human speed of rewriting a document involved calculation is slow, especially when calculation has, has to be done a number of times..
These explain the reason why payslips are never ready on time. And payment is delayed in an organization where manual payroll system of data processing is still in use.
Disadvantages of manual method of data processing
- information retrieval is slow
- sac curacy is not always assured
- subjects to delay factors, and
- not very reliable
Mechanical data processing:
These method involved, the use of mechanical device, or the use of punch card equipment or operation are performed by machines controlled by machine operator
Origination of data.
Data originated from many source; for data processing purpose the main is the source documents, such as the invoice, Bill order, register, notes, cheques. e. t. c.
Preparation of data for input
data in the source documents and not generally in in form that can be easily processed by computer. In few situation. Where the source documents can be possessed by the computer, Example, cheques computerized bills. e. t. c, it is generally necessary to sort documents manually, (or by using computer) in a certain sequence for each processing. Yet another case the source documents need to be recompiled, transcribed and possibly reformatted So that’s the important item for processing are easily identify, for example, such as a signature ,witnesses, seal,, and notes, and so on.. are meant for verification of the authenticity of the documents.
processing stage involved three steps viz, inputting of data, processing of data and outputting of processed data or information in form of reports analysis. e. t. c
Before data can serve as input for computer processing it must be put into machine readable from. This can be done by punching data onto cards using key-punch machines or transferring them , onto tape or diskette, using the appropriate device such as data should be verified for proper transcription, or conversation on the appropriate media.
The fact that data has been transcribed correctly from the source documents onto a medium of communication with the computer does not guarantee the usability of the data by computer.
Some of the data could have been transcribed into wrong places in the first instance. Because of this and other problems, data for input into the computer for processing have to be edited and validate that is, it has to be ascertained that the data is recorded at corrected places and In corrected manner.
The processing data involved following a standard procedure or algorithm. (an algorithm, is a procedure that would eventually terminate) this procedure spell out what type of operation is to perform on the data and how, and at what points. possible operation on data include addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, relocation , comparison, sorting, summarizing so on.
the output obtain from processing data is usually informed of reports, analysis summary graphs, sleeps tables and so on.
More often than not the output is in a printed form on special forms such as computer continuous forms or pre pre printed forms. in order cases, the output can be informed of machine sensible codes stored on tapes, disks and cards.
The processing stage whole is automatic using electronic data processing method .
it involves a program written` to read the input process it (the input) and produce output automatically, other processing methods usually rely heavily on some forms of manual assistance to produce the output from the inputs.
Definition of Output
The result of data processing has to be communicated to someone authorized receive it ,the results will be checked by the authorized person to confirm that the expected result is obtained and that the proper procedure has been used to obtain it.
Having so verified the result. It can be now be used for planning purposes. Or the outputs can be sent to the end user by posts or otherwise.
For example, the payslips obtain as to output from the payroll system would be mailed down to the appropriate beneficiaries in the organization. Whereas the summary reports, you’ll be retained somewhere in the accounting bursary department for reference on documentation.
Data Processing techniques
the following are the techniques of data processing :
- Batch processing
- Multi processing
- Time sharing processing
- Real time processing
- Multi programming and
- Distributed processing
- Batch processing:
Executing a series of non-interactive jobs, all at one time. The terms originated in the days when users entered programs on punch cards. They will give a batch of these programmed cards to the system operator who would feed them into the computer .
Batch jobs can be stored up during working hours. And then, is executed, during the evening or whenever the computer is idle.
batch processing is particularly useful for operations that requires the computer, or a peripheals device for an extended period of time. Once a batch job begins. It continues until an error occurs.
Notes does batch processing implies that there is no interaction with the user, why the program is being executed. An example of batch processing is the way that credit cards.
Companies process billing. The customer does not receive a bill for each separate credit card purchase. but one monthly bills for all of that. Most purchase. The bill is created through batch processing. Where all of the data are collected and held until the bill is processed. As a batch. At the end of the billing cycle. The opposite of batch processing is transaction processing or interactive processing. In, interactive process , the application responds to commands. As soon as you enter them.
- Multi processing
multi processing is the use of two or more central processing unit, (CPU) within a single computer system. The terms also refers to the ability of a system to support more than one processor, and/or the ability to allocate tasks between them. There are many variations on these basic theme, and the definition of multi processing canvary with context. Mostly, as a function of how CPU. are define (multiple cores on One, die multiple chips, in one package multiple packages in one system on unit ) e. t. c
- Multi processing Sometimes refers to the execution of multiple concurrent software processing in the system, as opposed to a single process at any one instant. However, the terms multitasking or multi programming are more appropriate to describe this concept, which is implemented, mostly in software, whereas most processing is more appropriate to describe the use of Multiple hardware CPU. A system can be both multiprocessing and multi programming, Only one of the two or neither of the two.
In a multi processing system, all CPU. May be equal or some may be reserved for special purposes. A combination of hardware and operating system software design consideration. determine, the symmetry, (or lack thereof), in a given system. For example, hardware or software considerations may require that only one CPU respond to all hard way interrupts whereas all other, work in the system may be distributed equally among. CPU or execution of kernrl-codes Maybe restricted to only one processor (either a specific processor only one processor at a time.).
Whereas user-mode code, may be executed in any combination of processor , multi processing system are often is to design is such restriction are imposed ,but they intend to be less efficient than system in which all CPU utilized equally.
system systems that takes all CPU equally are called symmetric multi processing (SMP) systems, in systems Where are all CPU, are not equal, system resources may be divided in a number of ways, including asymmetric multi processing (ASMP), non uniform memory, access(NUMA), multi processing and clustered multi processing